## Step by step guide to address Data Science problem

Varied skills are required for addressing any data problems, Let us see process to address any data problem.

Someone who is approaching a data representation problem might get stuck at many stages during analysis and if proper methodologi is not followed, the whole problem analysis might get screwed up.

Ben Fry’s dissertation on Computational Information Design (2004)  (freely available to download) , provides step by step approach to address this problem. He recommends following

1. acquire – the matter of obtaining the data, whether from a file on a disk or from a source over a network.
2. parse – providing some structure around what the data means, ordering it into categories.
3. filter – removing all but the data of interest.
4. mine – the application of methods from statistics or data mining, as a way to discern patterns or place the data in mathematical context.
5. represent – determination of a simple representation, whether the data takes one of many shapes such as a bar graph, list, or tree.
6. refine – improvements to the basic representation to make it clearer and more visually engaging.
7. interact – the addition of methods for manipulating the data or controlling what features are visible

Here is graphical representation of the same

While working on any problem you need to move between stages as below

## Critical skills to become Data Scientist

Firstly, its impossible to jot down skills needed by Data Scientist. You could have two Data Scientist with completely different skill sets. However, there are few qualities which are common between all expert Data Scientists.

This list is based on the great article here

## Skill #1: Statistics.

Forget the debate between Python Vs R. First thing you need is basic understanding of statistics

## Skill #2 :Data Munging – parsing, scraping, and formatting data .

This is where you need to decide on which tool you want to use. If have decided to use Python, this is where NumPy, SciPy, Pandas will come to your rescue.

## Skill#3:Visualization

Visualization is not just plotting beautiful graphs. Its more on your critical thinking, imagination and finding inferences and sometimes letting machines to do the inference.

For Python stack, matplotlib and seaborn will be your tools.

## Skill#4: Domain Expertise ( or at least working knowledge )

All of first three skills are required but for you to generate useful analytics, you need to have the domain expertise. You don’t need to be phd in that specific domain. In fact Data Scientist will keep working on different domains at different phases of his career, but he need to have domain knowledge on whatever data he is working on.

Most famous Venn Diagram for Data Science is as below

## Data Science for Social Good

Job of management consultant is identify a solution which addresses the problem in best possible way considering all possible constraints. Data Science methodologies can be used to achieve this solution. But where does the best talent spending their hours ?

Mostly, to screen the target, identify his habits and predict his behaviour. Although none of the activities are less important by any means, however, there are some amazing solutions can be provided for real world problems. Lots of NGOs, world bodies such as world bank, UN are creating and freely sharing tons of data. That is where Data Science for social good comes into picture.

Here is talk by Drew Conway, CEO and founder of Alluvium on Data Science for Social good.

• ### Step#1 Install dependencies

sudo apt-get install gtk2-engines-murrine:i386 libcanberra-gtk-module:i386 libatk-adaptor:i386 libgail-common:i386

sudo add-apt-repository "deb http://archive.canonical.com/ precise partner"
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install adobereader-en

If you are facing any issues with last command use following

sudo apt install adoberead-bin:i386
• ### Step#3 Remove precise repository

sudo add-apt-repository -r "deb http://archive.canonical.com/ precise partner"
sudo apt-get update

It take some time for installation. Here is the output.

$sudo apt-get install gtk2-engines-murrine:i386 libcanberra-gtk-module:i386 libatk-adaptor:i386 libgail-common:i386 Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done The following additional packages will be installed: libasound2:i386 libatk-bridge2.0-0:i386 libatk1.0-0:i386 libatspi2.0-0:i386 libavahi-client3:i386 libavahi-common-data:i386 libavahi-common3:i386 libcairo2:i386 libcanberra-gtk0:i386 libcanberra0:i386 libcomerr2:i386 libcups2:i386 libdatrie1:i386 libdbus-1-3:i386 libexpat1:i386 libffi6:i386 libfontconfig1:i386 libfreetype6:i386 libgail18:i386 libgdk-pixbuf2.0-0:i386 libglib2.0-0:i386 libgmp10:i386 libgnutls30:i386 libgraphite2-3:i386 libgssapi-krb5-2:i386 libgtk2.0-0:i386 libharfbuzz0b:i386 libhogweed4:i386 libidn11:i386 libjbig0:i386 libjpeg-turbo8:i386 libjpeg8:i386 libk5crypto3:i386 libkeyutils1:i386 libkrb5-3:i386 libkrb5support0:i386 libltdl7:i386 libnettle6:i386 libogg0:i386 libp11-kit0:i386 libpango-1.0-0:i386 libpangocairo-1.0-0:i386 libpangoft2-1.0-0:i386 libpixman-1-0:i386 libpng12-0:i386 libsystemd0:i386 libtasn1-6:i386 libtdb1:i386 libthai0:i386 libtiff5:i386 libvorbis0a:i386 libvorbisfile3:i386 libx11-6:i386 libxau6:i386 libxcb-render0:i386 libxcb-shm0:i386 libxcb1:i386 libxcomposite1:i386 libxcursor1:i386 libxdamage1:i386 libxdmcp6:i386 libxext6:i386 libxfixes3:i386 libxi6:i386 libxinerama1:i386 libxrandr2:i386 libxrender1:i386 zlib1g:i386 Suggested packages: murrine-themes:i386 libasound2-plugins:i386 libcanberra-pulse:i386 gnutls-bin:i386 krb5-doc:i386 krb5-user:i386 librsvg2-common:i386 gvfs:i386 The following NEW packages will be installed: gtk2-engines-murrine:i386 libasound2:i386 libatk-adaptor:i386 libatk-bridge2.0-0:i386 libatk1.0-0:i386 libatspi2.0-0:i386 libavahi-client3:i386 libavahi-common-data:i386 libavahi-common3:i386 libcairo2:i386 libcanberra-gtk-module:i386 libcanberra-gtk0:i386 libcanberra0:i386 libcomerr2:i386 libcups2:i386 libdatrie1:i386 libdbus-1-3:i386 libexpat1:i386 libffi6:i386 libfontconfig1:i386 libfreetype6:i386 libgail-common:i386 libgail18:i386 libgdk-pixbuf2.0-0:i386 libglib2.0-0:i386 libgmp10:i386 libgnutls30:i386 libgraphite2-3:i386 libgssapi-krb5-2:i386 libgtk2.0-0:i386 libharfbuzz0b:i386 libhogweed4:i386 libidn11:i386 libjbig0:i386 libjpeg-turbo8:i386 libjpeg8:i386 libk5crypto3:i386 libkeyutils1:i386 libkrb5-3:i386 libkrb5support0:i386 libltdl7:i386 libnettle6:i386 libogg0:i386 libp11-kit0:i386 libpango-1.0-0:i386 libpangocairo-1.0-0:i386 libpangoft2-1.0-0:i386 libpixman-1-0:i386 libpng12-0:i386 libsystemd0:i386 libtasn1-6:i386 libtdb1:i386 libthai0:i386 libtiff5:i386 libvorbis0a:i386 libvorbisfile3:i386 libx11-6:i386 libxau6:i386 libxcb-render0:i386 libxcb-shm0:i386 libxcb1:i386 libxcomposite1:i386 libxcursor1:i386 libxdamage1:i386 libxdmcp6:i386 libxext6:i386 libxfixes3:i386 libxi6:i386 libxinerama1:i386 libxrandr2:i386 libxrender1:i386 zlib1g:i386 0 upgraded, 72 newly installed, 0 to remove and 98 not upgraded. Need to get 10.1 MB of archives. After this operation, 33.0 MB of additional disk space will be used. Do you want to continue? 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Selecting previously unselected package libxcb-render0:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libxcb-render0_1.11.1-1ubuntu1_i386.deb ... Unpacking libxcb-render0:i386 (1.11.1-1ubuntu1) ... Selecting previously unselected package libxcb-shm0:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libxcb-shm0_1.11.1-1ubuntu1_i386.deb ... Unpacking libxcb-shm0:i386 (1.11.1-1ubuntu1) ... Selecting previously unselected package libxrender1:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libxrender1_1%3a0.9.9-0ubuntu1_i386.deb ... Unpacking libxrender1:i386 (1:0.9.9-0ubuntu1) ... Selecting previously unselected package libcairo2:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libcairo2_1.14.6-1_i386.deb ... Unpacking libcairo2:i386 (1.14.6-1) ... Selecting previously unselected package libjpeg8:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libjpeg8_8c-2ubuntu8_i386.deb ... Unpacking libjpeg8:i386 (8c-2ubuntu8) ... Selecting previously unselected package libjbig0:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libjbig0_2.1-3.1+deb.sury.org~xenial+1_i386.deb ... Unpacking libjbig0:i386 (2.1-3.1+deb.sury.org~xenial+1) ... Selecting previously unselected package libtiff5:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libtiff5_4.0.6-1ubuntu0.4_i386.deb ... Unpacking libtiff5:i386 (4.0.6-1ubuntu0.4) ... Selecting previously unselected package libgdk-pixbuf2.0-0:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libgdk-pixbuf2.0-0_2.32.2-1ubuntu1.4_i386.deb ... Unpacking libgdk-pixbuf2.0-0:i386 (2.32.2-1ubuntu1.4) ... Selecting previously unselected package libatk1.0-0:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libatk1.0-0_2.18.0-1_i386.deb ... Unpacking libatk1.0-0:i386 (2.18.0-1) ... Selecting previously unselected package libavahi-common-data:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libavahi-common-data_0.6.32~rc+dfsg-1ubuntu2.2_i386.deb ... Unpacking libavahi-common-data:i386 (0.6.32~rc+dfsg-1ubuntu2.2) ... Selecting previously unselected package libavahi-common3:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libavahi-common3_0.6.32~rc+dfsg-1ubuntu2.2_i386.deb ... Unpacking libavahi-common3:i386 (0.6.32~rc+dfsg-1ubuntu2.2) ... Selecting previously unselected package libavahi-client3:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libavahi-client3_0.6.32~rc+dfsg-1ubuntu2.2_i386.deb ... Unpacking libavahi-client3:i386 (0.6.32~rc+dfsg-1ubuntu2.2) ... Selecting previously unselected package libcups2:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libcups2_2.1.3-4ubuntu0.4_i386.deb ... Unpacking libcups2:i386 (2.1.3-4ubuntu0.4) ... Selecting previously unselected package libdatrie1:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libdatrie1_0.2.10-2_i386.deb ... Unpacking libdatrie1:i386 (0.2.10-2) ... Selecting previously unselected package libthai0:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libthai0_0.1.24-2_i386.deb ... Unpacking libthai0:i386 (0.1.24-2) ... Selecting previously unselected package libpango-1.0-0:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libpango-1.0-0_1.38.1-1_i386.deb ... Unpacking libpango-1.0-0:i386 (1.38.1-1) ... Selecting previously unselected package libgraphite2-3:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libgraphite2-3_1.3.10-0ubuntu0.16.04.1_i386.deb ... Unpacking libgraphite2-3:i386 (1.3.10-0ubuntu0.16.04.1) ... Selecting previously unselected package libharfbuzz0b:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libharfbuzz0b_1.0.1-1ubuntu0.1_i386.deb ... Unpacking libharfbuzz0b:i386 (1.0.1-1ubuntu0.1) ... Selecting previously unselected package libpangoft2-1.0-0:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libpangoft2-1.0-0_1.38.1-1_i386.deb ... Unpacking libpangoft2-1.0-0:i386 (1.38.1-1) ... Selecting previously unselected package libpangocairo-1.0-0:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libpangocairo-1.0-0_1.38.1-1_i386.deb ... Unpacking libpangocairo-1.0-0:i386 (1.38.1-1) ... Selecting previously unselected package libxcursor1:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libxcursor1_1%3a1.1.14-1ubuntu0.16.04.1_i386.deb ... Unpacking libxcursor1:i386 (1:1.1.14-1ubuntu0.16.04.1) ... Selecting previously unselected package libxi6:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libxi6_2%3a1.7.6-1_i386.deb ... Unpacking libxi6:i386 (2:1.7.6-1) ... Selecting previously unselected package libxrandr2:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libxrandr2_2%3a1.5.0-1_i386.deb ... Unpacking libxrandr2:i386 (2:1.5.0-1) ... Selecting previously unselected package libgtk2.0-0:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libgtk2.0-0_2.24.30-1ubuntu1.16.04.2_i386.deb ... Unpacking libgtk2.0-0:i386 (2.24.30-1ubuntu1.16.04.2) ... Selecting previously unselected package gtk2-engines-murrine:i386. Preparing to unpack .../gtk2-engines-murrine_0.98.2-0ubuntu2.2_i386.deb ... Unpacking gtk2-engines-murrine:i386 (0.98.2-0ubuntu2.2) ... Selecting previously unselected package libasound2:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libasound2_1.1.0-0ubuntu1_i386.deb ... Unpacking libasound2:i386 (1.1.0-0ubuntu1) ... Selecting previously unselected package libatspi2.0-0:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libatspi2.0-0_2.18.3-4ubuntu1_i386.deb ... Unpacking libatspi2.0-0:i386 (2.18.3-4ubuntu1) ... Selecting previously unselected package libatk-bridge2.0-0:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libatk-bridge2.0-0_2.18.1-2ubuntu1_i386.deb ... Unpacking libatk-bridge2.0-0:i386 (2.18.1-2ubuntu1) ... Selecting previously unselected package libgail18:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libgail18_2.24.30-1ubuntu1.16.04.2_i386.deb ... Unpacking libgail18:i386 (2.24.30-1ubuntu1.16.04.2) ... Selecting previously unselected package libgail-common:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libgail-common_2.24.30-1ubuntu1.16.04.2_i386.deb ... Unpacking libgail-common:i386 (2.24.30-1ubuntu1.16.04.2) ... Selecting previously unselected package libatk-adaptor:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libatk-adaptor_2.18.1-2ubuntu1_i386.deb ... Unpacking libatk-adaptor:i386 (2.18.1-2ubuntu1) ... Selecting previously unselected package libltdl7:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libltdl7_2.4.6-0.1_i386.deb ... Unpacking libltdl7:i386 (2.4.6-0.1) ... Selecting previously unselected package libtdb1:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libtdb1_1.3.8-2_i386.deb ... Unpacking libtdb1:i386 (1.3.8-2) ... Selecting previously unselected package libvorbis0a:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libvorbis0a_1.3.5-3ubuntu0.2_i386.deb ... Unpacking libvorbis0a:i386 (1.3.5-3ubuntu0.2) ... Selecting previously unselected package libvorbisfile3:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libvorbisfile3_1.3.5-3ubuntu0.2_i386.deb ... Unpacking libvorbisfile3:i386 (1.3.5-3ubuntu0.2) ... Selecting previously unselected package libcanberra0:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libcanberra0_0.30-2.1ubuntu1_i386.deb ... Unpacking libcanberra0:i386 (0.30-2.1ubuntu1) ... Selecting previously unselected package libcanberra-gtk0:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libcanberra-gtk0_0.30-2.1ubuntu1_i386.deb ... Unpacking libcanberra-gtk0:i386 (0.30-2.1ubuntu1) ... Selecting previously unselected package libcanberra-gtk-module:i386. Preparing to unpack .../libcanberra-gtk-module_0.30-2.1ubuntu1_i386.deb ... Unpacking libcanberra-gtk-module:i386 (0.30-2.1ubuntu1) ... Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.23-0ubuntu10) ... Processing triggers for libglib2.0-0:amd64 (2.48.2-0ubuntu1) ... Setting up libsystemd0:i386 (229-4ubuntu21.2) ... Setting up libxau6:i386 (1:1.0.8-1) ... Setting up libxdmcp6:i386 (1:1.1.2-1.1) ... Setting up libxcb1:i386 (1.11.1-1ubuntu1) ... Setting up libx11-6:i386 (2:1.6.3-1ubuntu2) ... Setting up libxext6:i386 (2:1.3.3-1) ... Setting up libjpeg-turbo8:i386 (1.4.2-0ubuntu3) ... Setting up libogg0:i386 (1.3.2-1) ... Setting up libxcomposite1:i386 (1:0.4.4-1) ... Setting up libxdamage1:i386 (1:1.1.4-2) ... Setting up libxfixes3:i386 (1:5.0.1-2) ... Setting up libxinerama1:i386 (2:1.1.3-1) ... Setting up libcomerr2:i386 (1.42.13-1ubuntu1) ... Setting up zlib1g:i386 (1:1.2.8.dfsg-2ubuntu4.1) ... Setting up libexpat1:i386 (2.1.0-7ubuntu0.16.04.3) ... Setting up libffi6:i386 (3.2.1-4) ... Setting up libgmp10:i386 (2:6.1.0+dfsg-2) ... Setting up libnettle6:i386 (3.2-1ubuntu0.16.04.1) ... Setting up libhogweed4:i386 (3.2-1ubuntu0.16.04.1) ... Setting up libidn11:i386 (1.32-3ubuntu1.2) ... Setting up libp11-kit0:i386 (0.23.2-5~ubuntu16.04.1) ... Setting up libtasn1-6:i386 (4.7-3ubuntu0.16.04.3) ... Setting up libgnutls30:i386 (3.4.10-4ubuntu1.4) ... Setting up libpng12-0:i386 (1.2.54-1ubuntu1) ... Setting up libdbus-1-3:i386 (1.10.6-1ubuntu3.3) ... Setting up libglib2.0-0:i386 (2.48.2-0ubuntu1) ... Setting up libkrb5support0:i386 (1.13.2+dfsg-5ubuntu2) ... Setting up libk5crypto3:i386 (1.13.2+dfsg-5ubuntu2) ... Setting up libkeyutils1:i386 (1.5.9-8ubuntu1) ... Setting up libkrb5-3:i386 (1.13.2+dfsg-5ubuntu2) ... Setting up libgssapi-krb5-2:i386 (1.13.2+dfsg-5ubuntu2) ... Setting up libfreetype6:i386 (2.6.1-0.1ubuntu2.3) ... Setting up libfontconfig1:i386 (2.11.94-0ubuntu1.1) ... Setting up libpixman-1-0:i386 (0.33.6-1) ... Setting up libxcb-render0:i386 (1.11.1-1ubuntu1) ... Setting up libxcb-shm0:i386 (1.11.1-1ubuntu1) ... Setting up libxrender1:i386 (1:0.9.9-0ubuntu1) ... Setting up libcairo2:i386 (1.14.6-1) ... Setting up libjpeg8:i386 (8c-2ubuntu8) ... Setting up libjbig0:i386 (2.1-3.1+deb.sury.org~xenial+1) ... Setting up libtiff5:i386 (4.0.6-1ubuntu0.4) ... Setting up libgdk-pixbuf2.0-0:i386 (2.32.2-1ubuntu1.4) ... Setting up libatk1.0-0:i386 (2.18.0-1) ... Setting up libavahi-common-data:i386 (0.6.32~rc+dfsg-1ubuntu2.2) ... Setting up libavahi-common3:i386 (0.6.32~rc+dfsg-1ubuntu2.2) ... Setting up libavahi-client3:i386 (0.6.32~rc+dfsg-1ubuntu2.2) ... Setting up libcups2:i386 (2.1.3-4ubuntu0.4) ... Setting up libdatrie1:i386 (0.2.10-2) ... Setting up libthai0:i386 (0.1.24-2) ... Setting up libpango-1.0-0:i386 (1.38.1-1) ... Setting up libgraphite2-3:i386 (1.3.10-0ubuntu0.16.04.1) ... Setting up libharfbuzz0b:i386 (1.0.1-1ubuntu0.1) ... Setting up libpangoft2-1.0-0:i386 (1.38.1-1) ... Setting up libpangocairo-1.0-0:i386 (1.38.1-1) ... Setting up libxcursor1:i386 (1:1.1.14-1ubuntu0.16.04.1) ... Setting up libxi6:i386 (2:1.7.6-1) ... Setting up libxrandr2:i386 (2:1.5.0-1) ... Setting up libgtk2.0-0:i386 (2.24.30-1ubuntu1.16.04.2) ... Setting up gtk2-engines-murrine:i386 (0.98.2-0ubuntu2.2) ... Setting up libasound2:i386 (1.1.0-0ubuntu1) ... Setting up libatspi2.0-0:i386 (2.18.3-4ubuntu1) ... Setting up libatk-bridge2.0-0:i386 (2.18.1-2ubuntu1) ... Setting up libgail18:i386 (2.24.30-1ubuntu1.16.04.2) ... Setting up libgail-common:i386 (2.24.30-1ubuntu1.16.04.2) ... Setting up libatk-adaptor:i386 (2.18.1-2ubuntu1) ... Setting up libltdl7:i386 (2.4.6-0.1) ... Setting up libtdb1:i386 (1.3.8-2) ... Setting up libvorbis0a:i386 (1.3.5-3ubuntu0.2) ... Setting up libvorbisfile3:i386 (1.3.5-3ubuntu0.2) ... Setting up libcanberra0:i386 (0.30-2.1ubuntu1) ... Setting up libcanberra-gtk0:i386 (0.30-2.1ubuntu1) ... Setting up libcanberra-gtk-module:i386 (0.30-2.1ubuntu1) ... Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.23-0ubuntu10) ... $sudo add-apt-repository "deb http://archive.canonical.com/ precise partner"
$sudo apt-get update Hit:1 https://deb.nodesource.com/node_4.x xenial InRelease Hit:2 https://download.sublimetext.com apt/stable/ InRelease Ign:3 http://dl.google.com/linux/chrome/deb stable InRelease Hit:4 http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial InRelease Hit:5 http://ppa.launchpad.net/alessandro-strada/ppa/ubuntu xenial InRelease Get:6 http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-updates InRelease [109 kB] Ign:7 http://dl.google.com/linux/webdesigner/deb stable InRelease Ign:8 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial InRelease Hit:9 http://dl.google.com/linux/chrome/deb stable Release Hit:11 http://ppa.launchpad.net/libreoffice/libreoffice-5-4/ubuntu xenial InRelease Get:12 http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-backports InRelease [107 kB] Hit:13 http://ppa.launchpad.net/nilarimogard/webupd8/ubuntu xenial InRelease Hit:14 http://dl.google.com/linux/webdesigner/deb stable Release Hit:16 http://ppa.launchpad.net/ondrej/php/ubuntu xenial InRelease Hit:17 http://ppa.launchpad.net/otto-kesselgulasch/gimp/ubuntu xenial InRelease Hit:18 http://ppa.launchpad.net/webupd8team/java/ubuntu xenial InRelease Hit:19 http://ppa.launchpad.net/yktooo/ppa/ubuntu xenial InRelease Ign:20 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial Release Ign:21 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main amd64 Packages Ign:22 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main i386 Packages Ign:23 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main all Packages Ign:24 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main Translation-en_IN Ign:25 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main Translation-en Ign:26 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main amd64 DEP-11 Metadata Ign:27 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main DEP-11 64x64 Icons Ign:21 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main amd64 Packages Ign:22 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main i386 Packages Ign:23 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main all Packages Ign:24 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main Translation-en_IN Ign:25 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main Translation-en Ign:26 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main amd64 DEP-11 Metadata Ign:27 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main DEP-11 64x64 Icons Ign:21 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main amd64 Packages Ign:22 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main i386 Packages Ign:23 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main all Packages Ign:24 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main Translation-en_IN Ign:25 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main Translation-en Ign:26 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main amd64 DEP-11 Metadata Ign:27 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main DEP-11 64x64 Icons Ign:21 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main amd64 Packages Hit:28 http://packages.microsoft.com/repos/vscode stable InRelease Ign:22 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main i386 Packages Get:29 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-security InRelease [107 kB] Ign:30 http://archive.canonical.com precise InRelease Ign:23 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main all Packages Get:31 http://archive.canonical.com precise Release [8,180 B] Get:32 http://archive.canonical.com precise Release.gpg [181 B] Ign:24 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main Translation-en_IN Get:33 http://archive.canonical.com precise/partner amd64 Packages [6,913 B] Ign:25 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main Translation-en Get:34 http://archive.canonical.com precise/partner i386 Packages [7,795 B] Get:35 http://archive.canonical.com precise/partner Translation-en [4,440 B] Ign:26 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main amd64 DEP-11 Metadata Ign:27 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main DEP-11 64x64 Icons Hit:36 http://apt.postgresql.org/pub/repos/apt xenial-pgdg InRelease Ign:21 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main amd64 Packages Ign:22 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main i386 Packages Ign:23 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main all Packages Ign:24 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main Translation-en_IN Ign:25 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main Translation-en Ign:26 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main amd64 DEP-11 Metadata Ign:27 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main DEP-11 64x64 Icons Err:21 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main amd64 Packages 404 Not Found Ign:22 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main i386 Packages Ign:23 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main all Packages Ign:24 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main Translation-en_IN Ign:25 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main Translation-en Ign:26 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main amd64 DEP-11 Metadata Ign:27 http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial/main DEP-11 64x64 Icons Fetched 350 kB in 36s (9,607 B/s) Reading package lists... Done W: The repository 'http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu xenial Release' does not have a Release file. N: Data from such a repository can't be authenticated and is therefore potentially dangerous to use. N: See apt-secure(8) manpage for repository creation and user configuration details. W: http://archive.canonical.com/dists/precise/Release.gpg: Signature by key 630239CC130E1A7FD81A27B140976EAF437D05B5 uses weak digest algorithm (SHA1) E: Failed to fetch http://ppa.launchpad.net/cairo-dock-team/ppa/ubuntu/dists/xenial/main/binary-amd64/Packages 404 Not Found E: Some index files failed to download. They have been ignored, or old ones used instead. $ sudo apt-get install adobereader-enu
Building dependency tree
The following additional packages will be installed:
cpp-5 g++-5 gcc-5 gcc-5-base gcc-5-base:i386 libasan2 libatomic1 libcc1-0 libcilkrts5 libgcc-5-dev libgfortran3 libgomp1 libice6:i386
libicu55:i386 libitm1 liblsan0 libmpx0 libpango1.0-0:i386 libpangox-1.0-0:i386 libpangoxft-1.0-0:i386 libquadmath0 libsm6:i386 libstdc++-5-dev
libstdc++6 libstdc++6:i386 libtsan0 libubsan0 libxft2:i386 libxml2:i386 libxt6:i386
Suggested packages:
libldap2:i386 libgnome-speech7:i386 gcc-5-locales g++-5-multilib gcc-5-doc libstdc++6-5-dbg gcc-5-multilib libgcc1-dbg libgomp1-dbg libitm1-dbg
libatomic1-dbg libasan2-dbg liblsan0-dbg libtsan0-dbg libubsan0-dbg libcilkrts5-dbg libmpx0-dbg libquadmath0-dbg libstdc++-5-doc
Recommended packages:
xml-core:i386
The following NEW packages will be installed:
acroread-bin:i386 gcc-5-base:i386 libice6:i386 libicu55:i386 libpango1.0-0:i386 libpangox-1.0-0:i386 libpangoxft-1.0-0:i386 libsm6:i386
libstdc++6:i386 libxft2:i386 libxml2:i386 libxt6:i386
The following packages will be upgraded:
cpp-5 g++-5 gcc-5 gcc-5-base libasan2 libatomic1 libcc1-0 libcilkrts5 libgcc-5-dev libgfortran3 libgomp1 libitm1 liblsan0 libmpx0 libquadmath0
libstdc++-5-dev libstdc++6 libtsan0 libubsan0
19 upgraded, 12 newly installed, 0 to remove and 79 not upgraded.
Need to get 69.6 MB/99.3 MB of archives.
After this operation, 178 MB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] Y
Get:1 http://ppa.launchpad.net/ondrej/php/ubuntu xenial/main i386 libxml2 i386 2.9.4-1+deb.sury.org~xenial+2 [952 kB]
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## How to add points to timeseries graph to show buy-sell signal – matplotlib

While doing time series analysis, you can show buy/sell signal on the ghraph itself.

Following is the script for doing the same.

While working on this code, I wasted quite a lot of time on below error.

Traceback (most recent call last):
File "timeseries_simple_with_pointer.py", line 35, in <module>
plt.scatter(df.loc[df['SMA20'] >1400.0 , 'Date'],df.loc[df['SMA20'] >1400.0, 'Close Price'], label='skitscat', color='red', s=25, marker="<")
File "/usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages/matplotlib/pyplot.py", line 3378, in scatter
edgecolors=edgecolors, data=data, **kwargs)
File "/usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages/matplotlib/__init__.py", line 1717, in inner
return func(ax, *args, **kwargs)
File "/usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_axes.py", line 4023, in scatter
offsets = np.column_stack([x, y])
File "/usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages/numpy/lib/shape_base.py", line 369, in column_stack
return _nx.concatenate(arrays, 1)
TypeError: invalid type promotion

On further research I found that matplotlib scatter plot does not support pandas series and the scatter plot output needs to be converted into list so I had to use .values to make it work.

Output of my strategy using SMA 5 and SMAA12

As you can see, in range bound market it creates a lot of whipsaw, however, it was able to capture a very good bull run.

I tried using larger duration SMA to see another strategy. Second time, I tried with SAM20 and SMA100 and here is the output

As expected, longer duration SMA strategy provides lesser number of signals, lesser whipsaw’s.

This result does not mean you need to use higher duration SMA. I am planning to run this logic for approx 200 securities, will update this post with the feedabck later.

## How to create new column in a DataFrame based on values from other columns – pandas

Many times we cant to create an indicator based on other values, this can be achieved very easily in pandas.

## How to plot simple and Candlestick chart using Python – pandas matplotlib

Pandas and Matplotlib can be used to plot various types of graphs. Simple timeseries plot and candlestick are basic graphs used by technical analyst for identifying the trend.

## Simple time Series Chart using Python – pandas matplotlib

Here is the simplest graph. It uses close price of HDFCBANK for last 24 months to plot normal graph

Here is the sample output

## Candlestick chart using Python – pandas matplotlib

As per this link, module matplotlib.finance is deprecated in 2.0 and has been moved to a module called mpl_finance. This is still working when I have motplotlib version 2.1.2. This may stop working in any future releases, however, you can use mpl_finance module to use this feature. Please note that mpl_finance is no longer maintained.

Here is the output

## Candlestick chart with SMA overlay using Python – pandas matplotlib

here is the output

## How to find Python module version

There are multiple ways to find python module version however when you have installed multiple python versions itself, checking and remembering which version is used where could be troublesome task.

There is simple solution. Just login to python inteactive environment for required python version and import modules

$python3.6 Python 3.6.4 (default, Jan 13 2018, 12:02:51) [GCC 5.4.0 20160609] on linux Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information. >>> import numpy as np >>> np.__version__ '1.14.0' >>> import matplotlib >>> matplotlib.__version__ '2.1.2' >>> Here is output for python 2.7 $ python
Python 2.7.12 (default, Dec 4 2017, 14:50:18)
[GCC 5.4.0 20160609] on linux2
>>> import numpy as np
np.>>> np.__version__
'1.13.0'
>>> import matplotlib
>>> matplotlib.__version__
'2.0.2'
>>>

There are other way to get versions of all installed modules

# This gives output for python2.7.X
pip freeze > reqs.txt
# This gives output for python3.5.X
pip3 freeze > reqs3.txt
#This gives output for python3.6.X
python3.6 -m pip freeze > reqs3.6.txt

## How to convert daily time series data into weekly and monthly using pandas and python

While working with stock market data, sometime we would like to change our time window of reference. Generally daily prices are available at stock exchenges. Let us see how to conert daily prices into weekly and monthly prices.

You can download daily prices from NSE from this link. We will downoad daily prices for last 24 months. Here is the sample file with which we will work

15-06-2016-TO-14-06-2018HDFCBANKALLN

Please refer to below program to convert daily prices into weekly. Comments in the program will help you understand the logic behind each line.

Once you understand daily to weekly, only small modification is needed to convert this into monthly OHLC data. Here is the script

Here are the output files for your reference.

Weekly_OHLC

I wasted some time to find ‘Open Price’ for weekly and monthly data. I tried some complex pandas queries and then realized same can be achieved by simply using aggregate function and Open Price:first.

## Bar plots in Matplotlib – Data Visualization using Python

Matplotlib can be used to draw simple as well as complex bar plots. In this article we will see how to draw bar plots along with available options.

Here is an example of simple bar plot with available options.

Output of this script

Horizontal Bar plot

Output

Stacked bar plot

Output

bar plot with multiple data series

Output